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Preview: Fantastic Four: Anniversary Tribute #1

Fantastic Four: Anniversary Tribute #1

(W) Stan Lee, Jack Kirby (A) Aco, More (CA) Steve McNiven
ONE-SHOT
In Shops: Nov 17, 2021
SRP: $6.99

Sixty years ago, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby made history and brought about the beginning of the Marvel Age of comics with the release of FANTASTIC FOUR #1. Now a bevy of Marvel’s finest creators pay tribute to that monumental moment by reinterpreting, page by page, the story from that inaugural release as well as FANTASTIC FOUR ANNUAL #3, in which the entirety of the Marvel Universe attended the wedding of Reed Richards and Sue Storm! Whether these are stories you’ve never read before or tales that you’re intimately familiar with, this is the perfect way to experience them anew!

Fantastic Four: Anniversary Tribute #1

Eternals the Comics! Jack Kirby Museum’s Rand Hoppe & Karen Charm of Comics XF

“When [Jack Kirby] came back to Marvel he was making Kirby comics, he was not making Marvel comics. And we’re the richer for it” -Rand Hoppe, Jack Kirby Museum

Jack Kirby’s 1977 comics series is a witty psychedelic saga about the Day of Judgement. Join Eternals experts for a look at Kirby’s underrated series historical context. Plus hear which other Eternals series we enjoy (and which you can skip).

Rand Hoppe had the idea for a non-profit devoted to Jack Kirby in 2004. Thanks to John Morrow from The Jack Kirby Collector and TwoMorrows Publishing and Jack’s daughter Lisa Kirby, the Jack Kirby Museum & Research Center was founded in 2005. https://kirbymuseum.org/

Karen Charm (they/them) is a cartoonist and life-long X-Men fan. They write a lot about Eternals for Comics XF, including putting together an Eternals Primer and providing issue recaps of the current series with Zoe Tunnell. @karen_xmenfan on Twitter

Check out my interview with Kieron Gillen, currrent Eternals series writer here– https://bit.ly/KGtheEternals

5 New Comics from Harlequin and Marvel are Available Now on comiXology

Marvel and Harlequin have you covered with five new releases available now on comiXology. Check out what you can get now!

Wolverine by Jason Aaron Complete Collection Vol. 1

Written by Jason Aaron
Art by Howard Chaykin, Ron Garney, Adam Kubert, Paco Diaz Luque, Stephen Segovia, Udon Studios
Cover by Olivier Coipel
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Collects Wolverine (2003) #56, #62-65 and material from #73-74; Wolverine: Manifest Destiny #1-4; Wolverine: Weapon X #1-5; and material from Wolverine (1988) #175.

He’s the best there is at what he does – and Wolverine’s not so bad, either. Now, the debut of writer Jason Aaron’s acclaimed and character-defining Wolverine run is collected in one volume! Joined by some of comics’ top artists, Aaron (PUNISHERMAX, Scalped) pits Wolverine against an array of twisted foes including super-powered kung-fu gangsters, a platoon of Adamantium-enhanced mercenaries, a broken little man with a very big gun, a nonstop barrage of Marvel’s heaviest hitters, and – in a brutal, no-holds-barred battle that may destroy them both – the treacherous, shape-changing Mystique! Guest-starring Spider-Man, the X-Men, X-Force, the Avengers and more!

Wolverine by Jason Aaron Complete Collection Vol. 1

Wolverine by Jason Aaron Complete Collection Vol. 2

Written by Jason Aaron
Art by Jock, Ron Garney, Davide Gianfelice, Yanick Paquette, Esad Ribic, C.P. Smith
Cover by Steve Epting
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Collects Dark Reign: The List – Wolverine, Wolverine: Weapon X #6-16, and material from All-New Wolverine Saga And Dark X-Men: The Beginning #3.

He’s the best there is at what he does – and Wolverine’s not so bad, either. The acclaimed and character-defining Wolverine run of writer Jason Aaron’s (PUNISHERMAX, Scalped) continues in this second volume! Joined by some of comics’ top artists, Aaron puts Wolverine through his paces: fighting the bizarre “living religion” Allgod, battling his way back to sanity from within Dr. Rot’s corrupt asylum, and facing unstoppable Deathlok assassins from the future – not to mention getting a girlfriend and grappling with the loss of his best friend! Plus: the double threats of Norman Osborn and Mystique! Guest-starring Marvel Boy, Fantomex, Psylocke, Captain America, the Avengers and more!

Wolverine by Jason Aaron Complete Collection Vol. 2

Thor: Warriors Three Complete Collection

Written by Tom DeFalco, Gary Friedrich, Stan Lee, Walt Simonson, Len Wein, Bill Willingham, Alan Zelenetz
Art by Deodato Studios, Joe Barney, John Buscema, Neil Edwards, Jack Kirby, Marie Severin, Herb Trimpe, Charles Vess
Cover by Joe Barney
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Collects Thor Annual #2, Incredible Hulk (1968) #102, Marvel Spotlight (1971) #30, Marvel Fanfare (1982) #34-35, Journey Into Mystery (1952) #-1, Warriors Three #1-4 — And Material From Tales To Astonish (1959) #101; Marvel Fanfare (1982) #13 And #36-37; Thor (1966) #400, #410 And #415-416; Marvel Comics Presents (1988) #66; Thor Annual #17; And Marvel Super-Heroes (1990) #15.

The Lord of the Sword, the Master of the Mace and the God of Girth! A romance-seeking rogue, a somber soldier and a fumbling family man: They’re one odd trio, but they’re the God of Thunder’s closest comrades – and even without him, they remain Asgard’s finest! Watch the Warriors Three face down Loki, Ulik, the Enchantress, the Destroyer and more! And when the fearsome Fenris Wolf returns, the Warriors Three undertake a quest to discover the secret of his defeat!

Thor: Warriors Three Complete Collection

Twelve: The Complete Series

Written by J. Michael Straczynski, Chris Weston
Art by Chris Weston
Cover by Kaare Andrews
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Collects The Twelve #1-12, The Twelve: Spearhead.

Yesterday’s men of tomorrow – today! The Phantom Reporter. Electro. The Black Widow. The Laughing Mask. The Blue Blade. Dynamic Man. Mastermind Excello. Mister E. The Fiery Mask. The Witness. Rockman. Captain Wonder. Lying dormant for sixty years, these twelve heroes awaken in a tormented world that needs them more than ever. But has the world grown beyond their brand of old-fashioned heroism? Behold the stunning post-modernist tale of sacrifice, betrayal and human nature by writer J. Michael Stracyzynski (TV’s Babylon 5, AMAZING SPIDER-MAN) and artist Chris Weston (The Invisibles, FANTASTIC FOUR: THE FIRST FAMILY). Plus: Journey into the past to follow the death-defying exploits of the Phantom Reporter on the front lines of World War II and witness his first encounter with history’s greatest super heroes!

Twelve: The Complete Series

Without Trust

Written by Penny Jordan
Art by Azumi Kana
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After being falsely accused of embezzlement, Lark decides to confront the prosecuting lawyer to prove her innocence. What awaits her is gorgeous, intimidating attorney James Wolfe. Lark decides to trust James with her plea but finds out a week later that her information has been leaked! Tabloids paint her as a conspiring femme fatale, which results in Lark losing not only her job and home but also the trust of her family. Overcoming her despair, Lark reunites with James, who wants to help her fight her case!

Without Trust

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Around the Tubes

It’s a new week and we have lots coming at you including exclusive interviews and more! So, get ready! We’re kicking it off with news and reviews from around the web you might have missed.

ICv2 – Kirby and Sinnott’s ‘Fantastic Four #86’ Original Cover Art Goes For $480,000 – Outbid again!

The Mary Sue – Things We Saw Today: WandaVision, The Mandalorian Win at the Creative Arts Emmys – Congrats!

Kotaku – Twitch Sues ‘Hate Raid’ Organizers – This is… good and unexpected.

Kotaku – Holy Batman, There Are So Many Marvel Games Now – Yes, yes there are.

Reviews

Talking Comics – The Last Session #1
Collected Editions – Secret Six Vol. 1: Friends in Low Places

Fantastic Four #86

All-star talent celebrate the Fantastic Four’s 60th Anniversary this November

This November, fans will get to experience two of the Fantastic Four’s greatest adventures in a brand new way in Fantastic Four Anniversary Tribute #1! This giant-sized issue will present classic stories with stunning new artwork by today’s leading artists.

Sixty years ago, Stan Lee and Jack Kirby made history and brought about the beginning of the Marvel Age of comics with the release of Fantastic Four #1. Now a bevy of Marvel’s finest creators will pay tribute to that monumental moment by reinterpreting, page by page, the story from that inaugural release as well as Fantastic Four Annual #3, the wedding of Reed Richards and Sue Storm!

Written by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, it features the art by Aco, Aaron Kuder, Adam Hughes, Albert Monteys, Alessandro Cappuccio, Bryan Hitch, Cafu, Carlos Pacheco, Chris Sprouse, Daniel Warren Johnson, David Lapham, Elsa Charretier, Erica D’Urso, Federico Vicentini, Greg Land, Javier Rodriguez, John Cassaday, John Romita Jr., Kate Niemczyk, Kei Zama, Leinil Francis Yu, Leonard Kirk, Lucas Werneck, Luciano Vecchio, Marco Checchetto, Mattia Del Mundo, Neal Adams, Nic Klein, Olivier Coipel, Paco Medina, Patch Zircher, Pepe Larraz, Ray-Anthony Height, Rod Reis, Ron Fenz, Simone Di Meo, Stefano Caselli, Steve Epting, Tom Reilly, Salvador Larroca, Jorge Fornes, Kim Jacinto, Walt Simonson, Leonardo Ortolai, Sanford Greene, Terry Dodson, and Mark Bagley. It features a main cover by Steve McNiven and variant cover by Jim Cheung.

See this modern take on two of the most pivotal moments in Marvel Comics history when Fantastic Four Anniversary Tribute #1 hits stands in November!

Marvel, AAM-Markosia, Yen Press, and Harlequin all deliver New Releases on comiXology

There’s 13 new releaes on comiXology right now from Marvel, AAM-Markosia, Yen Press, and Harlequin. You can get shopping now or check out the individual releases below.

Marvel Weddings

Written by John Byrne, Gerry Conway, Steve Englehart, Stan Lee, David Michelinie, Fabian Nicieza, Jim Shooter, Roy Thomas
Art by Rich Buckler, John Buscema, Sal Buscema, John Byrne, Jack Kirby, Andy Kubert, Paul Ryan, Joe Staton
Cover by John Romita Sr.
Purchase

Collects Fantastic Four (1961) #150 And Annual #3, Incredible Hulk (1964) #319, Avengers (1963) #59-60, 127, Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21, X-Men (1991) #30. Reed and Sue, heart and soul of Marvel’s First Family of Super Heroes. Peter and Mary Jane, the spider and the supermodel. Scott and Jean, childhood sweethearts sworn to protect a world that hates and fears them. Bruce and Betty, the beauty and the beast. Break out the tissues, True Believer: The House of Ideas cordially invites you to celebrate the history-making nuptials of its greatest couples in this keepsake edition! From the Fantastic Four to Spider-Man to the X-Men, with a few surprises in between, this commemorative volume proves the power of love can overcome all odds

Marvel Weddings

New Invaders: To End All Wars

Written by Allan Jacobsen
Art by Jorge Lucas, C.P. Smith
Cover by Scott Kolins
Purchase

Collects New Invaders (2004) #1-9. Soldiers, super heroes, sentinels of liberty since the Second World War – they’re the Invaders, and they’re back! In 1941, the greatest heroes of the day united to battle the Axis powers. Today, the Invaders have reunited to combat the Axis Mundi, a global terrorist network born from the ashes of the Third Reich. Beyond borders, beneath the seas and behind enemy lines, they hunt the hidden terrors that threaten civilization!

New Invaders: To End All Wars

Rogue: Forget-Me-Not

Written by Tony Bedard
Art by Derec Donovan, Karl Moline
Cover by Scot Eaton
Purchase

Collects Rogue (2004) #7-12. A bold new direction for the Southern Belle! Rogue may be a hero now, but once upon a time she wasn’t so sweet…and that criminal past may just come back to haunt her! A traumatic encounter will leave her drastically changed…permanently!

Rogue: Forget-Me-Not

Sabretooth: Open Season

Written by Daniel Way
Art by Mark Pennington, Bart Sears
Cover by Paolo Rivera
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Collects Sabretooth (2004) #1-4. The most brutal villain in the Marvel Universe returns! But has he gone too far this time? Did Sabretooth destroy an entire island of innocent humans? And what will happen when the U.S. Military tries to bring him down? Will they succeed – or pay the ultimate price?

Sabretooth: Open Season

So I’m a Spider, So What? #52.2

Written by Okina Baba
Art by Asahiro Kakashi
Purchase

Read the next chapter of So I’m a Spider, So What? on all digital platforms!

So I'm a Spider, So What? #52.2

The Last Magician #3

Written by Sean Meighen
Art by Thien Uncage
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Still grappling with his newfound destiny as the legendary Last Magician, Christian soon faces his first challenge when he is abducted by the demonic Shadow People. Will Christian be able to defeat the dark entities and escape with his life, or will his first adventure as Rookwood’s sworn protector also be his last?

The Last Magician #3

The Last Mundane #2

Written by Jorge Perez Bucheli
Art by Jorge Perez Bucheli
Purchase

Alliances are put to the test during Adam and his friends’ long journey to Nuke City, only to discover that there is no single safe place on their way to their final destination. Meanwhile, a lurid menace begins to take shape, led by dark forces and threatening to establish a new world order!

The Last Mundane #2

Monument #4

Written by Richard Perry
Art by RH Stewart
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As Nicole and DCI Venn seek out to solve the string of murders in East London, they both find different clues that lead them to who is responsible. Nicole seeks advise from her mentors whilst Venn visits an old enemy that he believes holds the key to all the answers.

Monument #4

Possession #5

Written by Michael Norwitz, Mary Ann Vaupel
Art by Enrico Carnevale
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“All this has happened before, and all this will happen again.” This issue turns away from the usual Possession cast for a tale of times past, in which the 1940’s heroes Shaman & Flame share a turbulent romance and confront the two-faced Head of Janus in a tragedy on the border of reality!

Possession #5

A Scandalous Proposal #2

Written by Julia Justiss
Art by Misao Hoshiai
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Emily finally realizes her love for Evan, which has liberated her. But he has to marry the sister of his best friend. A big hurdle is now standing between the two, and because she loves him, Emily decides to leave Evan…and return to the high society that she abandoned years ago?

A Scandalous Proposal #2

Another Time

Written by Susan Napier
Art by Jun Togashi
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Helen is being fitted for her wedding dress when her fiancé’s brother, Alexander Knight, suddenly appears. He stares at Helen with his ardent black eyes and asks her, “Have you forgotten that night in Hong Kong five years ago?” What is he talking about? She’s never met him before! But there are blank spots in Helen’s memory due to a past illness… Is there a secret between the two of them hidden in her lost memories?

Another Time

Claiming My Bride Of Convenience

Written by Kate Hewitt
Art by Imeri Tsubakino
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Daisy, a poor waitress, decided to marry multimillionaire Matteo after they met by chance. Matteo needed a wife in order to take over his grandfather’s company and he assured her the marriage would be for two years only. However, three years have gone by now and Daisy is still married! Exasperated, she asks Matteo for a divorce. But she’s shocked when he proposes that they make their relationship real. He’s never so much as looked at her in the past three years, and now he wants a real marriage?

Claiming My Bride Of Convenience

Conveniently Engaged To The Boss

Written by Ellie Darkins
Art by Tomoko Takakura
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Eva is the secretary for the president of a high-end department store. One day, the son of the president asks her to pretend to be his fiancée to comfort his father, who’s suffering from cancer. She agrees to do it, since she’s fond of his father. In order to keep up appearances, they stay at a hotel together and even choose an engagement ring. Immersed in their new pretend life, the lines start to blur between what’s fake and what’s real…

Conveniently Engaged To The Boss

This site contains affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of the product links and make a purchase, we’ll receive a percentage of the sale. Graphic Policy does purchase items from these sites. Making purchases through these links helps support the site.

Preview: Jack Kirby’s Fantastic Four Artisan Edition

Jack Kirby’s Fantastic Four Artisan Edition

(W) Stan Lee (A/CA) Jack Kirby
In Shops: Jun 30, 2021
SRP: $39.99

Jack Kirby’s Fantastic Four. World-shattering events, cosmic calamities, and Kirby Krackle-does it get any better?

Jack Kirby is one of the most important creators in the history of comics, and the Fantastic Four is one of his greatest achievements. First published in 1961, the adventures of Mister Fantastic, the Human Torch, the Invisible Girl, and the ever-lovin’ Thing introduced a bold new era in comics. Kirby’s dynamic storytelling, coupled with Stan Lee’s poignant writing style, were unlike anything comic book readers had seen before-it literally ushered in THE MARVEL AGE OF COMICS!

Including Fantastic Four Annual #6, the 48-page groundbreaking story that featured the birth of Franklin Richards! Also presenting issues #71, #82, #83, and #84, featuring the Inhumans, Doctor Doom, and others-plus a beautiful gallery section of some of Kirby’s most incredible pages, all scanned from the original art!

Like all of IDW’s award-winning Artist Edition style books, each page has been painstakingly scanned from the original art to ensure the finest possible reproduction, mimicking the experience of seeing Kirby’s hand-drawn pages-it’s the next best thing owning the art!

Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four Artisan Edition

Marvel Studios’ Eternals Gets its first Official Teaser

Marvel Studios has dropped the first teaser trailer for Eternals. Created by Jack Kirby, the Eternals are a race of immortal beings with superhuman powers who have secretly lived on Earth for thousands of years.

Directed by Chloé Zhao, the screenplay is by Zhao, Kaz Firpo, and Ryan Firpo. It stars Angelina Jolie, Salma Hayek, Gemma Chan, Richard Madden, Kit Harington, Kumail Nanjiani, Bruan Tyree Henry, Barry Keoghan, Lauren Ridloff, Ma Dong-seok, and Lia McHugh.

Eternals comes to theaters on November 5, 2021.

Those Two Geeks Episode 113: Talking Comic Book History With James Caudill

Alex and Joe talk with history teacher James Caudill about comic book history, and the books we’re currently reading. You can find James @teachcaudill on Twitter, and his writing at Comics The Gathering.

As always, Alex and Joe can be found on Twitter respectively @karcossa and @jcb_smark if you feel the need to tell them they’re wrong individually, or @those2geeks if you want to yell at them together on twitter, or by email at ItsThose2Geeks@gmail.com.

People’s History of the Marvel Universe, WandaVision Special: The Difficult question of Jewish and Romani Representation

The following is originally a Tumblr post from a couple years back (as you can see from some of the contemporary references) that I held back from publishing because I wanted to have a Roma sensitivity reader take a look at it first, and then never got around to finishing when other things came up despite their very kind assistance. However, the popularity of WandaVision brought back some pre-existing discourse around Elizabeth Olsen’s casting as a non-Romani actress and Joss Whedon and pre-Feige Marvel executives’ decision to reimagine Wanda and Pietro Maximoff as radicalized Sokovian nationalists rather than Romani.

This reminded me of the unfinished post I’d written about the difficult question of Romani representation in comics rooted in problematic decisions made during Marvel’s Silver Age and its particular relationship to subtextual Judaism in the work of assimilated Jewish creators. So after the break, I’ve posted an edited and elaborated version of my original post.

One comics related question, Victor von Doom is Roma, a poor Roma in his origin at that, but he has “Von” in his title? Is it that Lee-Kirby never consulted the Almanach de Gotha, a reference to Erich von Stroheim (who was after all a Jewish haberdasher who passed himself as a aristo in hollywood and popularized the “von” concept)? But more importantly how does Doom being a proud Roma with a fake Junker aristo name work as a concept? Is Doom appropriating the Nazi-aristocratic culture?

Ok…this is a tricky topic, because I really don’t want to undercut any of the people pushing for better Roma representation in comics, especially with everything going on with Secret Empire and Peter Alan David’s rant at NYCC. However, Silver Age (and later) comics creators hadn’t usually done much cultural research with regard to the Romani, and tended to base their portrayals in the kind of tropes set out by Bram Stoker’s Dracula and Universal Pictures’ Wolfman films. These tropes tended to traffic in both Romantic exoticism and anti-Romani stereotypes, and (as I’ll explain when I get into some examples) were used by Marvel creators in a way that arguably involved ethnic erasure, which raises questions about how we think about these characters as positive or negative representation.

To answer the original Tumblr ask, with Victor Von Doom, honestly I think the process didn’t go much further than: repeated Vs sound good and while Doom makes no sense as a last name that would exist in reality, there’s the repeated D’s of Doctor Doom, and “von” sounds Junkerish and (thanks to American propaganda from WWI and WWII) we all know the Junkers are bad guys – without any real reference to the sociocultural meanings of European naming conventions and ethnicities.[1] Then Stan Lee and Jack Kirby probably moved on from a name to the character concept of Victor Von Doom as a tyrant (in the original Greek sense of the term) who overthrew the traditional order; why would Victor hate the old order, well he was persecuted, what’s a group that’s persecuted, Romani are persecuted, so go with that. In Von Doom’s case, things get even more problematic, because von Doom’s Romani heritage was used as a way to explain why Doctor Doom has mastery over magi as well as super-science:

Where I think things become even more complicated is when we get to characters like Magneto, Scarlet Witch, and Quicksilver. Because whereas Romani identity probably wasn’t a major element of the character creation process for Von Doom, here I feel like Romani was used as a background as a way to bring up Nazi racial ideology and the Holocaust without explicitly labeling anyone as Jewish. Despite the fact that Magneto, Scarlet Witch, and Quicksilver’s creators Jack Kirby and Stan Lee were Jewish and had (Jack more so than Stan) progressive anti-Nazi politics, there was still something of a tendency in pop culture of that era to keep Jewishness subtextual to which the original generation of comics creators was no exception – something that is explored in excellent detail in Abraham Riesman’s True Believer.

Thus, it wasn’t until the Bronze Age of comics where a younger generation of Jewish creators like Chris Claremont took over the franchise that Magneto was revealed to be Jewish. As a result, some awkward retconning took place, such that Erik Lensherr (or Magnus or Max Eisenhardt) now had escaped Auschwitz and joined a Romani caravan, where he met Magda and then fathered Wanda and Pietro and then left. Now, that’s not to say that there aren’t Romani of Jewish faith or people of mixed Jewish/Romani ethnicity, but given that what little use of Romani cultural identifiers there is in these cases – which generally boils down to the stereotypical caravans of painted wagons, men wearing vests, and an ill-defined state of persecution – makes no reference to the Zhutane Roma, I don’t think that’s what Lee and Kirby were going for.

Rather, I think creators reached for Romani backgrounds because these creators thought that Roma shared tropes associated with European Jews – Eastern European origins, oppressed minority status, an “otherized” cultural difference from the perceived mainstream – so that they could stand in for Jewish, without running into the problems with either management or the consuming public that Jewishness was believed to run afoul of, while adding exoticized elements that might move more sales units.

And it’s this assumed sameness and safeness I have a problem with, because embedded in there is an assumption that Romani aren’t a real living people and culture, that they are instead a stock trope of fairytales and Gothic horror and thus can be used as a costume, whereas Jews are a real people and culture and thus it would be inappropriate or bad business to depict them directly.

That’s always stuck in my craw when it comes to some of these characters because I’ve never been quite sure whether Erik, Pietro, and Wanda are really supposed to be Romani representation or whether these characters are Jews in Romani-face. Making it all the more complicated is the fact that Marvel doesn’t seem to be comfortable with the situation either; hence the large number of retcons that have taken place that revolve around Wanda and Pietro’s parentage and Magneto’s own ethnic heritage. Are Wanda and Pietro ethnically Romani, or merely adopted? Are they the biological children of Magneto or not, and what does that mean for their Jewish identity? Is Magneto himself a Jew from Warsaw or a Sinti Romani from Gdansk? It all depends on when and which creators one asks.

This uncertainty, however, leaves some significant questions unresolved: is it better, given the fact that almost no minority-group representation in comics (Silver Age or no) is that good to begin with, to have bad representation or none at all? How do we deal with situations in which members of one minority group are appropriating the culture of another to smuggle their own experience into the dominant narrative?

In the end, I think that it can never be satisfying for either Jews or Romani to have one group play-acting as the other – but the real issue is that neither should have to settle for that simply because there’s so little representation for either group that the two groups find themselves fighting over scraps. The answer is that comics companies need to commit to more robust representation both in quantity and quality, such that we don’t have characters having to shoulder the entire weight of being “the” representation for an entire group, let alone more than one.


[1] The Junker class were hereditary landed nobility in Prussia (more specifically from the north-eastern regions of Prussia) who had something of a lock on military and administrative positions, first within the Kingdom of Prussia and then within the German Empire of 1871-1918. The Junkers tended to be actively pro-monarchist and anti-democratic, and bitterly hostile to both free-market liberalism and Socialism, and because of their dominance within the German Army became stock figures (think buzz cuts, monocles, and dueling scars) of German militarism in both WWI and WWII. More to the point, a Junker would always have the noble title of “von” in their last names, no Romani would ever have been allowed the honorific under the pre-Weimar monarchies, and the Junkers were generally pretty hostile to Romani in much the same way that they tended to be hostile to German and Polish Jews.    

Almost American
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